September 30, 2008

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-24

Origin of name of Tibet
Archaeological findings have proven that as early as 10,000 years ago, human begins lived on the Tibet Plateau. Some believe the Nyingchi Man, who lived sometime between 8,000 to 5,000 years ago, was the ancestor of Tibetans.
More than 2,000 years ago, the Yarlung tribe who lived in the Yarlung Zangbo River valley in southern Tibet dominated the area. In the early 7th century, Songtsan Gambo, chief of the tribe, led his people from the river valley to the present-day Lhasa area. He united Tibet by annexing other tribes on the Tibet Plateau and established the Tubo Kingdom.
Tibet has had different names during different historical periods. During the Tang and Song dynasties, it was called "Tubo." During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, it was called "Us-Tsang," and starting in the Qing Dynasty, it was called "Xizang."
In the Tang Dynasty, the Tibetans called themselves "Bo." The earliest written record of "Tubo" in Chinese can be found in the The Chronicles of Tubo in the New History of the Tang Dynasty. Af first, Tubo referred to the area of present-day Tibet. Later, with the burgeoning of the Tubo Kingdom, the name referred to the area comprised of Tibet, Qinghai, and Xikang. Eventually, the entire Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was called Tubo.
The pronunciation of Tubo can be derived from the bilingual (Chinese and Tibetan) inscriptions on the Tang-Tubo Treaty Stele in front of Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, erected during the Tang Dynasty.
After the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet became an administrative region of China, under the jurisdiction of the central government. After Tibet became part of the Yuan territory, Tibet was still called "Tubo." In its zenith, Tubo comprised Tibet, Qinghai, Xikang--three areas that included Ngari, Central and Western Tibet, southern Gansu, northwestern Sichuan, Ganzi, Gamdo, and Yunnan's Deqen Prefecture. The area covering Qinghai, southern Gansu and northwestern Sichuan is pronounced "Amdo" in Tibetan and is abbreviated as "Do." Because the area covering Ganzi, Deqen, and Qamdo is pronounced "Kang" in Tibetan, the two areas were called Do-Kang. The area covering Central and Western Tibet was called Us-Tsang.
In the early Qing Dynasty, Tibet's name had three versions: "Tibbat," Tanggut," and "Xizang." During the reign of Emperor Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty, Tibet was called "Xizang." "Xi" (meaning "west") refers to Tibet's location in western China; "Zang" is from Tibetan pronunciation "Us-Tsang."
The English version of "Tibet" came from the Arabic language "Tibbat." In the mid-ninth century, an Arabic merchant visited China. After going back to his home country, he wrote a book on his travels in China, and he spelt the name Tubo "Tibbat." In a history textbook published in Japan, the author pointed out that the Arabians used the name Tibet, obviously derived from the word "Tubo." Marco Polo, who traveled extensively in China in the 13th century, used the word "Tibet" in his travel notes published in French. The translator explained that the word "Tibet" came from the pronunciatioin of "Tubo."

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-23

Tibet-An Inseparable part of China
From the 7th to the 10th century In the Tang Dynasty: Close Relations between Tibet and Central China The friendly relations between the Tibetan nationality and the Han nationality of the main areas of China can be traced to ancient times, as is proved by archaeological findings and historical documents in Tibetan and Chinese. In the seventh century the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo unified the tribes on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and established the Tubo Dynasty. King Songtsen Gampo married Princess Wencheng of the Tang Dynasty in 641, after which the Tang emperor conferred on him the titles of "Imperial Son-in-Law Governor", "West Sea Prince", and "Treasured Prince."
In the 13th centuryIn the Yuan Dynasty Tibet Became an administrative Region of ChinaIn the thirteenth century Temujin (Genghis Khan), who succeeded in subjugating other independent tribes and local forces, founded the Mongol Khanate. In 1247 Sakya Pandita, the chief of the Sakya Buddhist sect in Tibet, and his nephew Phagpa, conferred with the Mongol Prince Godan, grandson of Genghis khan, at Liangzhou (in present-day Gansu province) on problems concerning Tibet giving its allegiance to the MongolKhanate. On his accession to the throne in 1260, Kublai Khan granted Phagpa the title of "Imperial Tutor" as well as a jade seal symbolizing the politico-religious power over Tibet, with which Phagpa was entrusted. This initiated the combination of temporal and spiritual authority in the Tibetan local regime. In 1271 Kublai Khan named his state the Yuan dynasty. In 1279 he unified China's entire territory. It was then that Tibet became an administrative region under the direct jurisdiction of the central government of China.
From the 14th to the 17th centuryThe Ming Imperial Court's Administration of TibetIn the Ming Dynasty the policy towards Tibet mainly continued that of the previous Yuan Dynasty. The governorship for U-Tsang and a Marshal's Headquarters were created. The system of official posts in Tibet ranking from commanders, commissioners to wan hu, qian hu, and bai hu was improved. Officials in Tibet were appointed by the central government. In carrying out a pacificatory policy, the Ming Dynasty granted various new offices and titles of honor to officials and dignitaries in the Tibetan areas. Thus the title of "Prince of Dharma" was granted to Khon Drakpa of the Sakya sect, "Prince of Great Treasure" to Karma Lama of the Kagyupa sect, "Prince of the Western Deities and Grand Imperial Tutor" and later "The Great Compassionate Prince of the Dharma" to Shakya Yeshe of the Gelugpa (Yellow-Hat) sect. Among many other titles of honor were those of "Initiation State Tutor", "Promotion Prince of Virtue", "Guardian Prince of the Doctrine", "Propagation Prince of the Doctrine".

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-22

The Feudal Serf System in Tibet Before 1959
A Society Based on a Regime that Combined the Political and Religious Powers, and Divided People into Three Strata and Nine Grades Tibet before 1959 had a society of feudal serfdom. Along with the general characteristics of feudal serfdom, there were many remnants of slavery. This social system was more cruel and reactionary than serfdom in Europe in the Middle Ages. The serf-owners' economic interests were protected by a political system that combined political and religious powers, ruling over the Tibetan people spiritually as well as politically. The local government of Tibet (in Tibetan, Kashag, and meaning "the institute that issues orders") was composed of powerful and influential monks and aristocrats. It upheld a series of social, political and legal institutions that rigidly stratified society. The Thirteen Laws and The Sixteen Laws divided the Tibetan people into three strata in nine grades according to their family background and social status.
The Feudal Lords’ Ownership of Means of ProductionThe monasteries, officialdom and the aristocrats owned all the arable land and pastures as well as overwhelming majority of livestock. These means of production were granted to them by the Dalai Lama. They had the right to govern and inherit the land.
The Feudal Lords’ Ownership of Their SerfsSerfs and slaves accounted for 95 percent of the Tibetan population (peasants 60%, herdsmen 20%, and lower-class monks 15%). They were owned by serf-owners, just like the means of production. They had no political rights or personal freedom. They and their children were freely given away as gifts of donations, sold or exchanged for goods. Their marriages had to be approved in advance by their manorial lords. Serfs who married out of the manorial estate had to pay ransom money to their lords. Those who could not perform corvee or went out to seek a livelihood elsewhere should pay “corvee taxes” to show their dependence on the lords. If a serf lost his ability to work, his thralkang field, livestock and farm tools would be those who died without issue was confiscated.
The Serfs’ Economic BurdenTaxes and levies in Tibetan areas included land rent, stock rent, corvee and taxes.
The main form of land rent was forced labor. In addition, there was a mixed form of land rent, which was paid in kind, forced labor and cash.
The manorial lords generally kept 70 percent of their land under their own management and rented out the rest to their serfs as thralkang land. The serf tenants of the thralkang land also had to till the land managed by the manorial lord, using their own farm animals and tools. The entire harvest on land managed by the manorial lords belonged to them alone.
The serfs had to do corvee for manorial lords and local government and pay taxes in kind and cash. Corvee duties were allotted by the local government.
There were two kinds of stock rent: paid in animal products to the manorial lords according to the original number of livestock rented from them, or in products according to the actual number of livestock.
Other taxes included land tax, corvee tax, and countless others.
The Oppression of the Serfs by Manorial LordsIn Tibet under the serfdom, not only did the local regime at various levels, set up judicial institutions, but the big monasteries, manorial lords and tribal chieftains could also judge cases and had their own private prisons.
If the serfs stood up against the manorial lords, violated the law or could not pay rent or taxes in time, the lords would punish them according to the Thirteen Laws or other laws. They used such inhuman tortures as gouging out the eyes, cutting off the feet or hands, pushing the condemned person down from cliff, drowning, beheading, etc
The Serfs’ Miserable lifeThe wealth of the society was highly concentrated in Tibet before 1959. More than 80 percent was possessed by the manorial lords and less than 20 percent belonged to the serfs, who accounted for 95 percent of the population. The masses of serfs lived in extreme poverty.
Some statistics about serfdom in TibetMany statistics and data show that in Tibet before 1959, production stagnated, the population of the Tibetan nationality diminished, epidemic diseases prevailed, the people lived in misery and society as a whole developed very slowly. The facts cited above give a broad outlines.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-21

The Rise and Fall of the Tibetan Nobility
The nobility of old Tibet lived mostly in sumptuous mansions on Barkor Street. After many years of renovation, most of them are now well preserved, although a few have been demolished. Architecturally, they are by and large similar to one another in layout, resembling the siheyuan (courtyard houses) of the Han people, and have a framework consisting of "four beams and eight pillars." The main building, which always faces south, is three or four stories high. Around the yard are rooms connected by corridors leading to the yard. Due to a severe shortage of building materials, glass was not used for window panes, transparent paper or light cloth being used instead.
Nobles and their servants made up the main body of the local residents of Lhasa. A nobleman would also have grand manorial estates in the countryside. There, he had warehouses, granaries, stables, workshops, and even a prison for locking up unruly serfs. A manorial estate was virtually a self-reliant economy, and was governed by its own autonomous rules.
In 1920s and 1930s, and again in 1950s, there were two migrations by Tibetan nobles away from Barkor Street to the suburbs, where they built villas. They planted pine trees, fruit trees and willows in their large gardens. They imitated the British way of life, which they had learned from contacts with India. The beams they used for building their houses were light iron rails imported from India by trains of pack animals. Besides, they started to bring in glass panes and window frames, also from India. Now their villas were bright and spacious. The second wave of migration to the suburbs was caused by the new government offering large sums of money to purchase mansions on Barkor Street to be used as office buildings.
When the l3th Dalai Lama came to power, he pressed forward with new policies, and for a time the nobles of Lhasa became very reform-minded. In the forefront of the reforms was a family headed by Triring. This family had migrated to Lhasa from Sikkim. In the past, Sikkim had been under the jurisdiction of Tibet, and people from Sikkim had often served in the Tibetan government and owned estates in Tibet. But while Triring was living in Lhasa, Sikkim was seized by the for the Tibet's ruling class. A large number of aristocrats of the Tubo kingdom perished with the collapse of the regime. This was followed by a period of several hundred years, during which Tibet was carved up an ruled by various local powers. They were, either temporal or religious, recognized later by the imperial court of the Yuan Dynasty and imperial decrees gave them the right to own farmland and serfs. In modern times, the Tibetan aristocracy has all but disappeared.
The rise of a new nobility was particularly clear after the fifth Dalai lama came to power. Especially the clan to which the new ruler belonged gained in wealth and prestige.
On the other hand, the extinction of a clan is exemplified by the history of the Ngapoi, which was once the most powerful family group in the Gongbo area. In the mid-18th century, the head of the clan and all his immediate family were put to death after the head of the clan had fallen foul of the Dalai Lama. His manorial estates were confiscated and given to someone else. The aristocratic name of Ngapoi continued, but there was no direct connection with the once-mighty Ngapoi of Gongbo.
Shekarling living in Tsang was ennobled because of his exploits in the war against the chief of Korga. A decree was issued that his posterity was entitled to inherit this title. So all of a sudden, Shekarling became a famous noble name. But a hundred years later, this clan declined, and disappeared. People would have forgotten this name if it were not for a man of this clan who went to Lhasa as a beggar and emerged a most talented man after assiduous studies there. His learning was appreciated by the l3th Dalai Lama, and the young man was accepted into the government, and enjoyed rapid promotion. He is still remembered because of a moving poem about him titled, In Memory Of Lhasa by Shekar Migyur Lhundrup.
The son-in-law system also went through a gradual course of evolution. In old Tibet, a son-in-law was regarded as equal to a son in family status. When discussing this topic, the two renowned clans Xazha and Charong are often cited as examples. In the early l8th century, a man named Wangqug Gyaibo, who had been a monk, returned to secular life and married into the family of Xazha, thus becoming a son-in-law of the clan and inheriting a noble title. Later, he became a Kalon and then a regent. It so happened that he had no son, so he adopted his nephew Tsering Wangchuk as his son. On the strength of being a member of the Xazha clan, Tsering Wangchuk became a Kalon too. He was later dismissed and sent into exile, and his property was confiscated. It was many years before the clan began to restore its social status and recover some of its land. The only daughter of Tsering Wangchuk inherited the name Xazha, which was then passed on to her husband and again passed on to Benjor Doje, the son-in-law of the next generation.
Charong, a famous Kalon and concurrently the commander-in-chief of the Tibetan army in the early 20th century, was also a son-in-chief of the Tibetan army in the early 20th century, was also a son-in-law of a noble family. His real name was Dasang Zhamdui, and he was from a poor family. When he grew up, he served as a bodyguard of the l3tn Dalai Lama. In l9l2, suspecting treachery on the part of the leader of the Charong clan, the l3th Da1ai Lama had the latter and his son executed, and bestowed on Dasang Zhamdui the name of Charong, as well as all the Charong manorial estates.
It seems that what was important in Tibetan tradition was land and not blood lineage, the clan and not the individual. It is very difficult to trace back the history of a Tibetan clan because of absence of original family records. Details of people and events of even a few generations ago are quite vague. In some historical records, one often comes across the names of residences only. At most, there would be a radical "ba" (person) after the name of a residence. So it would be quite impossible to know who was who. In addition, generations are often miscalculated. Luckily, we are quite clear about the persons and events in this book, since the period under scrutiny is relatively recent.
Apart from the title to land and people, Tibetan nob1es were also entitled to become officials. These positions were unsalaried, but whether in the central government in Lhasa or as a county magistrate, the opportunities for amassing wealth through graft were enormous. People of humble birth were ineligible for official jobs, unless they were ennobled first, like Charong Dasang Zhamdui. In modern times, there is an instance of a wealthy merchant, a certain Sangdutsang, who was a commoner and who purchased an official position before being given an aristocratic title. Up until one or two centuries ago, official positions were hereditary too; a son automatically succeeded to his father's official position. Later reforms ensured, at least in princip1e, that a member of the nobility stalled from a low-ranking post and rose gradually. When he reached a certain rung on the ladder, his personal abi1ity and the influence of his clan became important criteria for further promotion.
However, the higher one climbed, the more risks one faced, as the power struggle intensified.
In l959, when Tibet shook of fits long history of feudal serfdom, there were, according to a census, about 200 noble clans. Together with the senior monks and the personnel of the Gaxag government, they owned almost all the farmland in Tibet.
The 200 noble clans had originated in the area between Lhasa and Xigaze. They had their manorial estates in the nearby countryside, and pasturelands in northern Tibet. But no matter where their properties were located, almost all of them preferred to live in Lhasa, leaving the management of their estates to stewards.
Much has been said about the miserable life of serfs. It is basically true. But, since they are not part of old Lhasa, I will not go into details. However, it is worth reminding the reader that a commoner's fate was controlled by someone else, and his life was, as a result, unbelievably miserable and poverty stricken. A serf might be a debtor when he was born, for one of his forefathers might have borrowed some barley many years before, which had snowballed into a huge debt under the usurious system practiced at that time. That was why the reform of l959 was hailed by poor Tibetans.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-20

The Emancipation of A Million Serfs
After 1959, Tibet began an epoch-making era reform. This was conducted by the central government of China pushing a primitive society of serfdom into the modern society of civilization.
In the countryside serfdom was abolished, rent and interest rates were reduced and farm- land was assigned to the landless serfs and slaves. In the pastoral areas after the reforms, the broad masses of herdspeople possessed their own tools, livestock and homes. Having cast of'! the heavy burdens of corvee, taxes and exploitation by moneylenders charging high interest rates, enthusiasm for production rose to an unprecedented high. In 1960, the total grain output of the Tibet Autonomous Region had risen 12.6 percent from 1959, while the amount of livestock rose by 31 percent. The Tibetan people had begun to possess the right to live comfortably, with enough to eat and to wear.
The Democratic Reforms of 1959 put an end to the political system of combining religious and political rule by introducing the new political system of people's democracy. In September 1959, the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region was proclaimed, the first Tibetan People's Congress was held in Lhasa and the Tibetan people began to exercise their rights to vote and to stand for election. Tibet practices regional national autonomy in accordance with the policies of the central government, which allows the Tibetan people to enjoy a high degree of autonomy and some special preferential treatment. Thus Tibet enjoys advantages over the interior in many aspects including the treatment of ethnic groups,religion, economic and social development and in the day-to-day life of the people.
At present, many Tibetans have become top leaders in both government and party organizations at all levels in the Tibet Autonomous Region, such as the five chairmen of the government of the Autonomous Region: Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Tian Bao, Dorji Tshitan, Dorje Cering and Gyalncain Norbu. Some of them also hold important posts in the central government. The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress which is similar to the national parliament of western countries, has always had a post of Vice-chairman reserved for Tibet. This is an unwritten convention. This title was even reserved for the 14th Dalai Lama during the first few years of his exile in India.
Nowadays the emancipated serfs have enough to eat and wear. When they catch up with the pace of China's reforms and opening up to the outside world they will be drawing near to prosperity. By 1 993, the income per capita in Tibet Autonomous Region reached 1 ,660 yuan RMB, although in the countryside it was only 515 yuan RM Be Amduo County in northern Tibet, which is famous for its animal husbandry has a regional income per capita of 1338 yuan RMB, which is much higher than the na- tional average in rural areas. Savings deposited in both urban and rural areas of the Tibet Autonomous Region reached 1.05 billion yuan RMB by August 1994, 4400 times as much as was de- posited in 1952. Modern electrical appliances, such as colour televisions, refrigerators, tape recorders and telephones are now popular in Tibet. The diet of the Tibetan people has become much richer, with fresh meat, eggs and vegetables appearing frequently. Traditional Tibetan clothing has become even more beautiful with people wearing Tibetan robes made from sheepskin otterfur rings and bracelets made from agate and hats decorated with gold and silver thread for their everyday clothing.
Today's Tibet is to some extent a typical dual -structure community. The ancient mysterious Potala Palace contrasts greatly with Lhasa's Holiday Inn Lido,where credit cards are used. Under the socialist system. Tibetan Buddhism has shaken off the influence of the ''dark Ages.'' It was not suffocated by the democratic reform and industrialization programme, rather, it is now rejected by law. Particularly after China's reform and peeing up to the outside world, religion in Tibet has been granted a new lease of life. The Central Govern- lent has spent US $ 240 million renovating temples so be whole region now has 1,425 temples and religious laces for her 34,000 monks and nuns to engage in religious activities and the key religious festivals of the major religious sects have also been resumed. The Jokhang Temple and the Samve Temple both of which have long histories, have been completely renovated. In 1994 the Central Government provided a large amount of capital including gold, silver and other precious stones to help renovate the Potala Palace, which is now open to both monks and lay people. Religious personnel from Tibet enjoy wide respect in China, and many of them have been elected to the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference at various levels go participate in the administration and discussion of state affairs. Religious groups have Conducted academic ex- :hanges both inside and outside China, with the help of the government.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-19

Rising above the Snow-Covered Plateau
Natural conditions in Tibet are extremely harsh. On the Tibetan Plateau the air is thin and temperature low, with air pressure and oxygen levels measuring less than two-thirds of those at lower-altitude plains. The duration of time that the temperature is above ten degrees centigrade is less than half that in Heilongjiang province--china's most northern province. Arable land accounts for only 0.2 to 0.3 percent of the whole of Tibet. In an effort to change the backwardness of Tibet and bring prosperity to all nationalities the Central Government has adopted favourable policies with respect to Tibet and people throughout China have donated manpower, materials financial and technical aid to Tibet.
In the past 40 years the Central Government has channelled 20 billion yuan RMB into Tibet as financial subsidies and capital construction investment. In recent years the amount has been no less than one billion yuan per annum the highest per capita amount of all provinces and municipalities. In addition to providing financial aid, the Central Government has adopted a low-tax policy with regard to Tibet. There is an unlimited amount of credit available to Tibet. Investors enjoy favourable interest rates while the local government is allowed to keep all the revenue it earns in foreign currency. Tibet is among the few districts in the world where no agricultural tax is collected.
Before the 1950s Tibet had no industry except for a 92 '-kilowatt hydropower station in Lhasa, a small armaments factory and a small mint whose staff members scarcely numbered 1 00. Today Tibet boasts a dozen or so modern industries including power, mining chemical industry, engineering and textiles. There are more than 300 modern industrial enterprises. Tibet's mineral industry is famous as China's biggest chromium iron reserves is found in Luobusa in Qusum County and China's biggest geothermal experimental base is located on the Yangbajain grassland. Manufactured goods in traditional Tibetan styles are produced in better quality materials with the international market in mind. Tibetan carpet leather handicrafts and objects for religious use have already appeared on the international market.
Infrastructures construction has begun to shorten the distance between Tibet and China's interior, as narrow paths and rattan bridges are becoming relics of the past. Modern cars travelling along the highways have replaced the old transport systems which mainly depended on humans and animals. Dozens of national and international air routes and the five highways connecting Tibet with Sichuan, Qinghai, XinJiang, Yunnan and Nepal have fundamentally changed the former isolation of Tibet. A transport network within Tibet has also been established. Meanwhile the development of telecommunications has allowed Tibet to become an information society. Tibet now has 41 satellite receiving stations and half of the counties are equipped with programme-con- trolled telephones. It has over 720 broadcasting television and satellite receiving stations. Towns and cities can generally receive at least five television channels. The Tibetan television station is connected to a satellite which covers the whole country so its programmes can be seen in the rest of China and other countries. The transformation and expansion of urban Lhasa is eye-catching. Residential housing has already reached one million square metres and the earth roads of the past have been replaced by granite-surfaced or cement roads.
From 1951 to the present, the population of Tibetans in Tibet has enjoyed its fastest growth in the past 1,000 years. When China conducted its first national census in 1953. the local Tibetan government headed by the Dalai Lama declared that Tibet had a population of one million. The second national census conducted in 1964 showed that Tibet had a population of 1.251 million of which 1.209 million were Tibetans, accounting for 94.4 percent of the total. Tibet's population had risen to 2.196 million by 1990 according to the fourth national census, of whom 2,096 million or about 95.46 percent were of Tibetan nationality. The average life expectancy rose from 35.5 years old in the 1950s to 65 years old. Between 1982 and 1990 the natural growth rate of the population of Tibetans in Tibet was 17.34 per thousand, 2.64 per thousand higher than the average national figure. The farming and pastoral areas of Tibet are the only districts in China where the family planning policy is not implemented. There every woman has 4.2 children on aver- age. Improvement in medical care and hygiene have played an important role in the population increase. There are now 1 ,070 medical establishments in Tibet, with 5,042 beds and, 9,683 professional medical workers. Thus there are two hospital beds and 1 .25 doctors for every thousand people. It is common knowledge that people in northern European countries enjoy free medical care, but this policy has lasted for more than 40 years in Tibet.The poor and the handicapped enjoy even more favourable treatment.
In old Tibet education was extremely backward and was controlled by the monasteries. The number of children going to school was no more than 3,000 at its highest. Thus less than two percent of children of school age were able to go to school. Education developed very quickly after the peaceful liberation of Tibet. In 1994 there were over 3,000 schools of all kinds with 230,000 students which means that 63.2 percent of children of school age were attending school. In an attempt to preserve Tibetan culture and ancient traditions children in Tibet, whether Tibetan or Han Chinese, are required to learn the Tibetan language. Education in Tibet from primary school to university level is free. Primary school students in remote outlying areas enjoy the benefits of a special policy making the government cover the costs of their accommodation, food and clothing. Some of the more developed provinces in the interior help to share the expense of Tibet's education system. Indeed Tibetan schools or classes have been established in 26 provinces and cities in the interior where children learn the Tibetan language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, history, Chinese and English. Tibet is represented in cultural performances, sporting competitions and art exhibitions at national level and in some of these fields Tibetans display first-rate achievements.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-18

A Bright Future
1995 is the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region. To accelerate development in Tibet the Central Party Committee and the State Council held the third symposium on the work in Tibet in July 1994. The symposium was attended by Jiang Zemin- the general secretary of the Central Party Committee and China's President Li Peng, the Premier of the State Council and Li Ruihuan, chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as well as leaders from the departments concerned at the central level and leaders of some provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. At this symposium Tibet's developmental goals were decided upon, namely that special policies and support would be given to accelerate economic and social development in Tibet. Between now and 2000 as investments and state aid for construction projects materialize. Tibet's gross national product (GNP) is expected to grow at an annual rate of 10 percent. The average income will increase and the standard of living will improve. It is hoped that the basic task of eliminating poverty can be accomplished and that the majority of people will be relatively well-off. In these ways. Tibet's level of economic and social development can be raised to lay the foundations for greater development in the next century.
At this symposium the Central Party Committee worked out a series of preferential policies relevant to Tibet 's circumstances. These were based on the principle that the rest of China would support Tibet. Sixty-two construction projects were planned all of which are related to the daily life of Tibetans for example concerning areas such as transportation, power, lecommunications, urban construction, medical care and the development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Total investment for these projects reached 2.38 billion yuan. All China's provinces, autonomous regions and cities expressed their wishes to help in the nstruction of Tibet and all took responsibility for specific tasks. Construction on such a scale is unprecedented in the history of Tibet.
The policy that the rest of China support Tibet was implemented soon after the meeting. Within two months, representatives from 1 8 central ministries, 29 provinces, and six separately planned municipalities had been to Tibet to survey the projects and to make sure that the funds were in place. By December 1994, the preparation for 48 of the 62 projects was complete accounting for 77 percent of the total. Construction work had begun on 32 projects, accounting for 51 . 6 percent of the total, It is expected that 38 projects 61 .3 percent, will be completed by September 1995, the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region. The State Council and the departments concerned are now discussing exactly how to implement all the other preferential policies for Tibet such as those regarding the financial system, taxes, banking, investment, price subsidies foreign trader social welfare agricultural reform and reform of enterprises in Tibet.
Support from the rest of China has fired the enthusiasm of the Tibetan masses for construction and they have greater confidence in the future of a socialist Tibet. The Tibetan people are now working hard and efficiently to greet the bright future.
The towering snow-covered plateau with all her charm and vitality, is beckoning to the world and to the future

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-17

The Last "Dark Ages"
Rich and beautiful Europe experienced a period known as the "Dark Ages" when barbaric methods of torture were used and the inhuman rule that sea-owners had the right to sleep with a female serf before she married her husband was enforced . However similar practices continued to exist in old Tibet for another400 years.
Before 1959, Tibet had long been a society of feudal serfdom under the despotic political- religious rule of lamas and nobles. The masses of serfs in Ti- bet did not even possess fundamental rights. Serf-owners principally local administrative officials nobles and upper- ranking lamas, accounted for less than 5 percent of Tibet's population but they owned all of Tibet's farmlands pastures, forests, mountains and rivers as well as most of the livestock. The serfs making up more than 90 percent of Tibet's population lived no better than the slaves in the plantations in the southern states of America. The serf-owners could sell or transfer their serfs, present them as gifts, or use them as mortgages payments for debts. They could even ex- change them,molest them or maltreat them. When two serfs got married, the husband and wife still belonged to different owners and their children were fated to be serfs from the moment they were born.
The statutory code of old Tibet stipulated that people were unequal in status by dividing people into three classes and nine ranks. In a peculiar law concerning the value of human life it was written that the lives of people belonging to the highest rank of the upper class such as a prince or leading living Buddha, were calculated to be worth the weight of the dead body in gold whilst the dives of people belonging to the lowest rank of the lower class, such as women, butchers, hunters and craftsmen were worth a straw rope. The judicial system of old Tibet gave monasteries and serf - owners the right to judge lawsuits. The judicial system itself was characterized by its bloodcurdling system of cruel tortures: punishments issued by the courts were extremely savage and cruel and included gouging out the eyes, cutting off the ears, hands or feet; pulling out tendons; throwing the criminal into water or shutting the criminal into a wooden case lined with nails facing inwards. These bloody historical facto were displayed in an Exhibition of Tibetan Social and Historical Relics in the Beijing Cultural Palace of Nationalities. Imagine what people thought when they saw the amputated limbs, the flayed human skins and the ghastly torture implemented.
One letter kept in file which attracted much attention. It read:
Rab Ge: A Buddhist ceremony will be held here. We need meat,hearts and blood from all kind of animals 4 human heads, intestines, pure blood, turbid blood, earth from ruins, the menstrual blood of a widow, the blood of a leper, water from beneath the surface of the earth, earth raised in a whirlwind, brambles growing towards the north, excrement of both dog and man and the boots of a butcher. All these should be sent to Tsechykhang on the 27th. Tsechykhang , the 19th"
From this letter we can imagine how many serfs would have been killed for that single ceremony. In such barbaric and brutal times. Tibet's economic and social development was out of the question. The economy in Ti- bet had been at a standstill for a long time and was even declining as was the output of grain. Crude wooden ploughs were the basic tools for agricultural production: the primitive method of herding were causing the deterioration of both the pastoralland and the breeds of livestock disease was epidemic and harmful beasts were rampant. The seas were cruelly exploited. They were forced not only into hard labour but also to bear the heavy burdens of corvee and tax. Living in poverty and starvation, they were struggling for existence on the brink of death all year round. In the 1950s, there were more than 4,000 beggars in the city of Lhasa, out of a opulation of only 37,000. The rate was even higher in Shigatse, the second largest city in Tibet. Because Of the high frequency of uncontrolled epidemics, the average life-span of a Tibetan was only 35.5 years.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-16

Long long ago, Tibet was a boundless sea. A large piece of continental plate on orogenic-movement drifting from the south met together with the European plate. At that time, a large stretch of highland was uplifted on the earth. This region of today with a high altitude and cold weather had once been an area with a warm, humid climate of subtropical zone of grassland with low altitude which provided a profitable condition for ancient human beings who lived and multiplied in this land. The scientists' survey tells: the activity of the ancient human being in Tibet shows clear difference between areas. The earlier cultural remains were mainly discovered in the west and north of Tibet, which belonged to the earlier uplifted areas. But the later cultural remains were mainly distributed in the east and middle part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. That is to say, the ancient human being in the Qinghai –Tibet plateau firstly originated and activated in today’s high altitude areas.
Before the 7th century, there were many tribes in Tibet. Wars broke out as the tribes tried to scramble for their domains. Among them, the Tubo tribe owned a large number of lands at its flourishing period in Yarlung. The earliest capital city of Tubo was in today’s Nedong County in Lhoka. After Namri Songtsen, the thirty-second generation of Tubo prince inherited the power and he consolidated and developed the Tubo’s territory. Later in order to refrain from the interior opposite influence between the tribes, Namri Songtsen moved the national capital from Nedong to Gyama area, present Medro Gongkar County, and built the Gyama palace. In the early 7th century, Songtsan Gampo, the son of Namri Songtsen, inherited the power, he completed his father’s cause and realized the unification of the Tibet plateau and set up the central slave regime---the Tubo Kingdom.
In order to consolidate the newly emerging power, Songtsen Gampo adopted a series of important measures. For instance, in the year 633, he moved the capital of Tubo Kingdom to Lhasa, built the Potala palace on the summit of the Red Hill and rebuilt the road and some other houses around the Potala palace. Step by step, Lhasa had become economic, political and cultural center of the Tubo Kingdom. To consolidate his regime, Songtsan Gampo advocated the advanced methods of the Tang Dynasty and set up system for civil and military officials, appointed the officials to control the garrisons in other areas and delimited the administrative regions etc. He divided the administrative areas into 18 big areas and established five big 'Ruchen' (Ru is Tibetan pronunciation at the time). Every Ruchen was divided into; up and down parts of Ru; every branch of "Ru" had 5000 families who are the common herdsman in peacetimes, but soldiers at war times. Meanwhile, he strengthened the system of discussing official business in alliance. He also remitted taxes, developed agricultural production and promoted economic prosperity. He sent people to ancient India to learn scripts and created the Tibetan written language and calendar and made great contribution to develop the Tubo’s culture.
During Songtsen Gampo’s time, the development of the Tubo Kingdom came to a period of great prosperity. In order to develop the relationship between Tubo and the surrounding countries, he sent envoys to Nepal firstly and then to the Tang’s court of China to make an offer of marriage in one hand. And by relying on his own armed strength to expand his territories steadily in other hand. With his territories expanding Guhuei to the north, he made an expedition to the west till they reached the four towns such as Gueizi, Yutian, Yianqi etc, where it connects with Nanzhuo, Dasi countries to the east. The Tubo kingdom had become the strongest military power in the west of China since the Qin and Han Dynasties.
Songtsen Gampo is the most important and well-known king of Tibet in Tibetan history. In 650, Songtsen Gampo died of illness. The Tubo Kingdom gradually declined. Because Trisong Detsan, the king of Tibet used force to fight against outside and went in for a large-scale construction and increased the heavy load of the people. He sharpened the social contradiction and led to successive turmoil. In 823, because of the aristocrats in the interior of the Tubo Kingdom fought for their power with each other, the society was in a turbulent situation. The slaves launched a large-scale uprising and stroke relentless blow at the rule of slavocracy’s class. Therefore, the Tubo Kingdom was thoroughly collapsed from then on.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet was officially incorporated into China’s territory and finished the long term divisive situation in the interior of Tibet. The Tibetan people obtained the steady life. In the Ming and Qing Dynasty, the central government of China strengthened its administrative grip on Tibet. In recent years, the Tibetan people together with the Chinese people of all nationalities fought against the imperialist invasion and upheld the unified motherland of China.
In May 23,1951, the Central Committee of People’s Government and the local government of Tibet reached to an agreement –“the 17 Point Agreement on Measures of the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” In February 1952, the Military Area of Tibet was officially set up. In April 1956, the Tibet Autonomous Region was established.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-15

Women in old Tibet
Before the democratic reform started in the late 1950s, Tibet experienced hundreds of years of feudal serfdom in which politics and religion went hand in hand and the clergy and aristocracy dictated, very much like Europe in the Middle Ages in many respects. The serf owners (officials, aristocrats and high-ranking clergy), who accounted for about five percent of the Tibetan population, possessed all the farmland, pastures, forests, mountains, rivers and mineral deposits, the majority of the herds and between 50 to 70 percent of the products put out by the labor of serfs and slaves. The serfs, more than 90 percent of the population, had no land, no housing and no personal freedom. Their lives belonged to the plantations of their lords. Domestic slaves, accounting for five percent, had nothing. Their masters owned them both body and soul.  Serf owners handled serfs as property, buying and selling them, presenting them as gifts, mortgaging them, or using them in barter trade. They had final say on the serfs' births, deaths and marriages.
The Thirteen Codes and The Sixteen Codes, which functioned in old Tibet for hundreds of years, divided people into nine classes on three levels and made it clear that they enjoyed no equal legal status.  Women were listed as the lowest, particularly poor women. It was stipulated, for instance, that people differed in terms of classes and therefore their life prices also differed. The value of upper-class people on the top level, such as princes and living Buddhas , was equivalent to the amount of gold needed equal to weigh the corpse, while the lives of the lower-class people in the third level, such as women, butchers, hunters and artisans, were worth only a piece of straw rope. According to a study of Tibetans living on the pastures, the life-price of men was twice that of women.  The traditional teaching and disciplines of Tibetan Buddhism discriminated against women. This discrimination was also reflected in local laws, which were influenced by religion. Women were seen as unclean and men were warned to keep their distance from them. Malignancy and other evils were described as properties of women. Women images were often objects for conquest at Buddhist rituals. According to Tibetan history, all of Tibet was "a woman demon lying on her back." Lhasa was the heart of the demon. In order to conquer the demon, monasteries had to be built all over this body. In other words, the monasteries in present-day Tibet are also signs of discrimination against women.  The laws of old Tibet made it clear that women could not participate in politics. Some regulations insisted that men "should not discuss business with women," "should not listen to women" and "must not give women the right to discuss state affairs." Monasteries even used body parts of unmarried women for Buddhist ceremonies. This practice existed until the early 1950s. Many monasteries forbade women to enter certain halls lest they bring bad luck with them.
The law of old Tibet also assigned a low status for women in marriages and families: they were grouped on the same level as domestic animals and classified as part of the family property. They could be presented as gifts. The law that stipulated the handling of the relatives of criminals said that for a criminal who had no children, "his wife shall be given to his father, or to his brother or other close male relatives if he had no father," or "be given, together with half of his domestic animals and other family property, to one of his close male relatives." If a man was saved by someone from under a yak, he should give his daughter to the savior, or his sister if he had no daughter, or 200 taels of silver if he had neither daughter nor sister. According to the law, noble women could also be given as gifts, only at a higher value.  In old Tibet, women suffered both in body and soul. They had to give birth in sheep pens. The infant mortality rate was 430 per thousand. The Gelukpa Sect forbade marriage for its monks. Since a large number of men entered monasteries as monks and did not participate in material and population production, women shouldered a large part of social responsibilities. They were the main source of taxes and corvee and did most of the work in and out of the house. Because many men became monks women had few men to marry. Even when they were married, many women were influenced by the teaching that human life was a sea of bitterness, and saw giving birth as one of the great ordeals of life. As a result, they were reluctant to have babies. Some girls pre-ferred to become nuns. Under the circumstances, the Tibetan population decreased by about a million inthe 200 years before the 1950s.  In old Tibet women shouldered most of the social production and housework and all the burdens of bearing and rearing children without the social re-cognition or status due to them. However, because of their irreplaceable role in the economic activities of the family and society, they were not totally subjected to the authority of their husbands. To a certain degree, they even had the right to possess and inherit family property. Traditionally, a Tibetan couple could either live with the man's family, or the woman's family. But these features could not change women's low general status in Tibetan society of old.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-14

From peaceful liberation to founding of Tibet Autonomous Region
The central government of China adopted the principle of peaceful liberation of Tibet in light of historic and actual situation in the region after the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949.
In May 1951: representatives of the central and local governments signed the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Tibetan Local Government on Measures for Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, widely known as the 17 Pacts.
In 1954: Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama went to Beijing to attend the first session of the National People's Congress (NPC), at which Dalai was elected vice chairman of the NPC standing committee, while Panchen was elected a member of the NPC standing committee.
In 1956: The preparatory committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region was set up and Dalai served as head of the committee.
In March 1959: Some officials of the former Tibet local government Kasha and some members in the upper class launched an armed rebellion, which attempted to safeguard the feudal serf system, split the country and oppose democratic reforms in Tibet. Acting on the order of the central government, the Chinese People's Liberation Army stationed in Tibet put it down.
In September 1965: The Tibet Autonomous Region was founded.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-13

Unprecedented progress made in 13 years

China's human rights record has made tremendous progress in the past 13 years, reported an article in the magazine "Human Rights" launched by the China Society for Human Rights Studies. Entitled "Development of China's Human Rights Cause in the Past 13 Years," the article cited a great number of statistics and facts in support of those achievements in the cause of advancing human rights.
China has achieved sustainable, rapid development in its national economy and a notable improvement in ensuring Chinese people's rights to subsistence and development, said the article.
China's gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing at an annual average rate of 9.3 per cent since 1989. In 2002, its GDP broke the 10 trillion yuan (US$1.21 trillion) mark for the first time, making China the sixth greatest economic power in the world. The figure was six times that of 1989.
Thanks to the development momentum of its national economy and the constant improvement in its investment environment, China has become increasingly attractive to investors from around the world.
China had an inflow of US$51 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2002, replacing the United States as the leading FDI recipient among all the countries of the world, said the article.
Big increases have also been registered in the incomes of China's urban and rural residents, resulting in significantly increased consumption and improved quality of life, it stated.
From 1990 to 2001, the per capita net incomes for rural residents increased by 62 per cent, and the disposable incomes for urban residents more than doubled.
Back in 1989, consumption primarily referred to meeting the basic needs of the people, whose spending priorities were food, followed by clothing and housing.
Since then people's expenditure on self-improvement and enjoyment of life has grown year after year. Computers and private cars have found their way into the lives of everyday people in increasing numbers.
While, for its part, the State has attached great importance to helping underdeveloped regions in their endeavours to shake off poverty through development and by assisting citizens living below the poverty line to improve their living standard.
In 2001, a total of 29 million rural residents, or 3.2 per cent of the country's total rural population, were classified as poverty stricken, 73 million less than in 1989.
China has made active efforts to promote political civilization, and the civil and political rights of citizens have been guaranteed effectively, said the article.
In China, all powers belong to the people. The Chinese people exercise the State power through the National People's Congress (NPC) and local people's congresses at different levels.
During the 10-year period for the terms of the Eighth and Ninth NPC, delegations and individual deputies forwarded 8,108 motions and 26,384 proposals, complaints and recommendations.
The NPC and local people's congresses have constantly intensified their supervision over implementation of laws and government work.
In striving to improve the system of democracy and legality, China has accelerated the process of law-making over the past 13 years. In line with the principle of running the country according to law, the NPC and the NPC Standing Committee have formulated 125 new laws, which account for 62.5 per cent of the total currently in force.
Importance has always been attached to the protection of citizens' rights in the process of law-making. A series of laws has been promulgated to this end, including the Organic Law of the Urban Residents' Committees, the Organic Law of the Villagers' Committees, the Trade Union Law, the law on Assemblies, Processions and Demonstrations, and the Copyright Law.
Multi-political party co-operation and political consultation under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party is a basic political system in China. It entered the Constitution in 1993 to represent the will of the State.
Grass roots democracy in China has experienced an unprecedented development during the period. By 2002, four re-elections of villagers' committees had taken place in most Chinese provinces, with a voter turnout exceeding 80 per cent in general.
This kind of self-government features democratic election of village leaders, decision-making through a democratic process, democratic management of public affairs and democratic supervision of the work of village leaders and public budgets. It has filled the rural population with a soaring political enthusiasm and protected the democratic rights of farmers.
Also thriving is urban grass roots democracy. Self-government by communities in Chinese cities and urban towns has become especially popular since 1998.
Residents in a given urban community are able, not only to select their own leaders through direct election, but also comment on the work of civil servants and government departments in general.
In short, community autonomy has enriched urban grass roots democracy and made it diverse in form.
To sum up, Chinese citizens in both town and countryside are enjoying broad democratic rights.
China is a multi-faith country, with a total of 100 million religious adherents. It pursues the policy, or principle, that calls for respect for religious beliefs and the autonomy of believers to run their religious affairs.
The various religions are equal in status and their respective adherents are able to join hands to strive for mutual development, and little religious strife has occurred. Believers and non-believers subscribe to the philosophy of mutual respect, and by so doing have been able to live side by side in harmony.
The article also said China has been rigorous with law enforcement, and its judicial bodies have conducted their duties according to the principle of fairness, leading to breakthroughs in the judicial protection of human rights.
In the past 13 years, public security and judicial departments have, in accordance with the law, dealt severe blows to those perpetrating crimes, and a nationwide campaign has been launched to consolidate market order, and the people's procuratorates at different levels have improved their practices relating to criminal prosecution.
China has persisted in placing equal emphasis on cracking down on lawbreakers and safeguarding human rights, and has scored notable achievements in judicial reforms under the principle of "justice and fairness." Efforts have been made to ensure that administrative law enforcement is carried out as an institutional practice, by following procedures prescribed in relevant laws and in accordance with laws applicable to specific cases. Improvement and development has also taken place with its system of lawyers and legal assistance.
The article said in the past 13 years, the Chinese Government has regarded employment as vital to the people's livelihood and has consistently held that the issue of ensuring employment and social insurance is a task of strategic importance to be accomplished through national economic and social development. To this end, it has adopted a series of measures and achieved a remarkable series of successes.
Employment has increased rapidly. China's employment reform has progressed smoothly, coupled with the formation of a new kind of labour relations in the country.
Some 650 million people were employed in 1990 and by 2001, the figure had grown to 730 million, a net increase of 83 million.
The rate of registered urban unemployment was around 3 per cent for most of these years. In 2002, the government was able to limit the rate of registered urban unemployment to 4 per cent.
The State follows a proactive employment policy under which work has been done to appropriately readjust the employment structure. As a result, a market-orientated employment system is now, by and large, in place.
The state has intensified the reform of the social security system to make it conform to the requirements of the market economic system, strengthened the management of social security funds and encouraged supervision by society over their use. It has also introduced a wide range of measures to increase the source of social security funds, along with the establishment of a social security system featuring distinct Chinese characteristics.
To date, the minimum subsistence guarantee system for urban residents has been implemented in all cities and major towns in the country, which has benefited 19.85 million people.
The article went on to say China has witnessed a rapid development of educational and cultural understanding and Chinese citizens have made obvious improvements in raising their educational and cultural levels.
In 2001, China had 1.35 million schools of different levels, with a combined enrolment of 320 million pupils and students. To put it another way, 26.6 per cent of Chinese were studying during that year, up from 22.2 per cent in 1990.
In 2001, the length of schooling averaged 7.7 years for Chinese citizens aged six and older, which was 2.4 years longer than in 1990.
For every 100,000 Chinese citizens, 4,087 had by 2001 received junior college education or education at even higher levels, nearly three times the figure for 1990.
The state has increased its input for education by large margins. The 2001 expenditure on education came to 463.766 billion yuan (US$55.88 billion), six times the 1990 figure.
The past 13 years have also witnessed enormous progress by China in developing the mass media and cultural undertakings. Cultural products have increased in quantity and kept improving in quality.
Conditions at major cultural venues have improved greatly over the past 13 years. While literature, artistic and theatrical creations and performances have thrived, and China's physical culture and sports have been full of vigour. To sum up, China's people, both urban and rural, have been able to enjoy an increasingly rich cultural life.
The article said China has made particularly spectacular improvements in the protection of women and children's rights. China has established a complete legal system for the protection of women's rights and the promotion of women's development, which takes the Constitution as its basis and the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Women as its core.
Progress has been made in work to ensure women's participation in discussion and management of State affairs. Of the delegates to the 16th CPC National Congress, 382 were women, accounting for 18 per cent.
In addition, women represent a not insignificant presence in leading bodies of the Party and government in all the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of the Chinese mainland.
At the end of 2001, women officials in the Party and government numbered 14.88 million, accounting for 36.7 per cent of the national total. This figure is up 4.06 million on 1990, representing a proportional increase of 5.8 percentage points.
The State attaches great importance to protecting women's equal rights in employment and access to resources. Women's rights and interests in work are effectively protected.
The average length of schooling for Chinese women has increased at a faster rate than for men, and the illiteracy rate for women has dropped faster than for men.
Chinese women's health, in general, has seen a continuous improvement.
The article said China has entered a new period of honouring the rights and interests of the disabled, and has founded a social environment in which the disabled enjoy understanding, respect, attention and help.
In the past 13 years, China has introduced a host of major measures so that an improvement has been made in the system for protecting the legitimate rights of the disabled.
Significant results have been achieved in rehabilitation of the disabled, while special education has developed rapidly.
Before 1990, less than 10 per cent of physically or mentally handicapped children were able to go to school; by 2000, the figure had shot up to 77.2 per cent.
The State has take positive steps in helping the disabled obtain employment as part of the effort to protect their right to work.
Assistance for the disabled is included in all government plans for poverty alleviation. Disabled citizens, in fact, are taken as constituting a priority group under such plans.
With assistance from the government and society, an aggregate total of 11.11 million disabled rural residents had, by the end of 2001, shaken off poverty. Disabled people in cities who live below the poverty line are entitled to a subsistence allowance provided by the State.
Some 2.01 million disabled people in cities and urban towns were in receipt of a subsistence allowance, while 530,000 others were able to benefit from the social insurance programmes.
The article went on to note that the Chinese Government has always attached great importance to protecting the rights of the country's ethnic minority groups, and they enjoy preferential policies as compared to the majority Han people.
Ethnic minority groups and the ethnic majority Han group share equal rights in participating in the management of State affairs.
The State fully respects and protects the freedom of ethnic minority groups to hold religious beliefs, and protects all legitimate religious activities undertaken by their people.
Protection of the rights of ethnic minority groups has become an even more enshrined principle under an even more complete legal system which has been developed in the past 13 years.
What merits special mention is the revision in February 2001 to the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy.
The revised law, upgrading the system of regional ethnic autonomy as part of the basic political system of China, has provisions on increasing capital input to accelerate the development of regional autonomy by people of ethnic minority groups.
The State policy calls for aid and assistance in areas such as capital, technology and professional talent in autonomous regions to promote their development and improve the living standards of their people.
Education in the five autonomous regions has also developed rapidly. In 1990 the State set up a fund to subsidize the development of education in these regions.
In 2001, a total of 560,000 ethnic minority students were studying at universities and colleges, 189 per cent more than in 1991. All the 55 ethnic minority groups, including those with a tiny population, now have their own young people studying at universities and colleges, and some of them even have people taking higher degrees, including doctorates.
Ethnic minority groups have been able to carry forward their cultural traditions. Since 1990, special funds have been allocated from both central and local government budgets for construction of libraries, cultural centres, ethnic art centres, museums, theatres and cinemas. Radio and TV programmes are aired, films dubbed, books, newspapers and magazines published in numerous ethnic minority languages, in addition to Internet websites in the Tibetan and Mongolian languages.
Central government has earmarked huge sums for restoration and repairs of sites of ethnic minority cultural heritage. Included are the Potala Palace in Lhasa, capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, and the Ta'er (Kumbum) Monastery in Qinghai Province, which is the holiest shrine of the Yellow Sect of the Tibetan School of Buddhism. The three ethnic epics, the King of Gesar, Tsangg'er and Manas have been translated into Chinese and many foreign languages.
The State has been at pains to organize the collection, compilation, translation and research of these and other intangible cultural heritages.
In the most recent years, traditional ethnic cultures have developed even more greatly in step with the implementation of the State strategy for developing the western regions and the development of tourism there.
The article said that theoretical research on human rights undertaken in China over the past 13 years has experienced the fastest development in Chinese history and been the most fruitful.
Through work over the past decade, Chinese researchers have built up a theoretical system on human rights, which is complete in nature and has distinct Chinese characteristics, said the article.
These years have also witnessed the most significant results through dialogue and exchange between China and foreign countries on human rights.
China has attended and organized numerous international human rights symposiums and meetings.
For better understanding and greater co-operation, Chinese leaders have, on numerous occasions, discussed human rights issues with leaders and other VIPs from overseas.
Since 1999, dialogue on human rights, either bilateral or multilateral, have been conducted, either on a government or non-governmental basis by China with countries including Britain, France, Australia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Brazil, Japan and the United States, the European Union, and some international organizations.
Positive results were achieved through such dialogues. China initiated the establishment of the Shanghai Co-operation Organization, and has contributed to the strengthening of co-operation between the member countries in fighting terrorism and protecting human rights.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-12

Monument to Tibet Peaceful Liberation Unveiled

Thursday, May 23rd, marks the 51st anniversary of the peaceful liberation of Tibet Autonomous Region. A monument has been unveiled a monument in its capital city Lhasa.
The ceremony to unveil the Tibet Peaceful Liberation Monument was held in the square of the Potala Palace in Lhasa Wednesday. Last year, the government of the Tibetan Autonomous Region celebrated the 50th anniversary of the peaceful liberation of Tibet. The momument commemorates this historic event.
Raidi, a senior Tibetan official,says this liberation started a new era for Tibet, enabling the region to smash the shackles of imperialist invasion and bringing its people light and hope.
"In just fifty years, the people of Tibet, led by the Communist Party of China, have made historic strides in changing their social system, and their living standard has kept improving. This fifty years has witnessed Tibet going from darkness to light, from backwardness to progress, from poverty to prosperity, from dictatorship to democracy, and from closedness to openness."
The name of the monument is in the calligraphy of President Jiang Zemin, and the inscription records the socioeconomic development Tibet has made in the past fifty years. Yang Youcai, a senior veteran, points out the significance of the monument.
"The completion of the monument is an eternal commemoration to the historic event of Tibet's peaceful liberation fifty-one years ago. It's also in memory of those heros who died for the liberation and construction of Tibet."
The Tibet Peaceful Liberation Monument stands 37 meters tall. Carved as an abstract Mount Qomolangma, known in the West as Mount Everest, the monument shows the earthshaking changes that occurred in Tibet and the spirit of the Tibetan people.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-11

Photos about peaceful liberation
Representatives of the Tibetan government
Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei presents an auspicious hada scarf to Premier Zhou Enlai
PLA soldiers in Tibet compensate the local for all supplies they need
Premier Zhou Enlai meets with a delegation from the Tibetan government at the Beijing Railway Station
The PLA troops on way to Tibet
Representatives of the Central Government sign the agreement
Chief Tibetan representative Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei addressing the signing ceremony
PLA soldiers reclaim wasteland in suburban Lhasa
Representatives of the Tibetan government with high-ranking PLA officers
Representatives of the three major monasteries in Lhasa present auspicious hada scarves to the PLA commanders

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei bids farewell to Qamdo before starting out to meet with the Dalai Lama
PLA General Zhang Jingwu gives alms to local monks
Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Central People's Government hosts a banquet to celebrate the Signing of the Agreement on Method for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
Newspapers nationwide report on the signing og the agreement

Representatives of the Tibetan government sign the agreement

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei toasting Vice-Chairman Zhu De
The 10th Panchen Erdeni supports the Central Government efforts to bring the peaceful liberation of Tibet
The Agreement on Methods for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet being signed by the Central Government and Tibetan government representatives in Beijing on May 23, 1951
At the Peace Dagoba in Gyangze, a ceremony is held to welcome the return of the Tibtan delegation
The Chinese-language version of the Agreement on Methods for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
The Tibetan-language version of the Agreement on Methods for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
PLA soldiers guard the Chinese border through the Himalayas
PLA soldiers publicize the policies of the Central Government among the Tibetans
At the banquet given by Mao Zedong on May 24, 1951 in Beijing to celebrate the signing of the Agreement on Methods for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, chief Tibetan representative Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei presents auspicious hada scarf to Mao Zedong
Tibetan people taught to sew by PLA troops

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-10

Unforgettable photos about peaceful Liberation
On the 23rd May of 1951, Chinese central government and Tibet local government endorsed the agreement to liberate Tibet peacefully.

On the 24th May of 1951, the chief of the delegates of Tibet local government Apeiawangjinmei made offering to Chairman Mao
The directors of the Southwest Millitary Area inspected the preparation for marching to Tibet..
Chairman Mao addressed the banquet.
The pledge meeting for marching to Tibet.

Celebration activities for the establishment of Preparation Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region were held in Norbu Lingka
The office building of the Preparation Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Officials of Tibet local government presented Hada to general Zhang Guohua on October 26, 1951.
Chairman Mao wrote words for the army that had constructed the roads in Tibet
Panchen Erdeni and Dalai Lama were interviewed by Chairman Mao in July 1954
The opening ceremony of the Sichuan-Tibet and Qinghai-Tibet Highways held in Lhasa on December 25, 1954.
Preparation Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region was established on 22nd Apr. of 1956. Vice premier Chenyi addressed the meeting

The army led by Chairman Mao reached Lhasa.
The army crossed over the glacier on the way to Tibe

The army was crossing swamp on the way to Tibet

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-9

Forty years of changes
On May 23, 1951, Tibet won peaceful liberation. Five-star red flags fluttered over Lhasa against the backdrop of blue sky. The ancient city finally entered a brand new era.
In 1959, when the Democratic Reform was conducted in Tibet, Tibetan serfs and slaves, totalling 1 million, were emancipated and won democracy, freedom, and human rights. As the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa saw fast progress in urban construction and various other undertakings. After the 1980s, Lhasa, under the loving care of the Central Government, experienced a construction boom. Lhasa is more beautiful and bustling today than it was in the past. It has become a State-class historical and cultural city in China, and a tourist city in the world at large.
Prelude to a New Era
Beginning with the signing of the 17-Article Agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet in May 1951, the Central Government undertook various efforts in Lhasa geared to improve the life of the citizens. The PLA men and the Tibetan people built the Sichuan-Tibet Highway and the Qinghai-Tibet Highway on "the roof of the world." The two highways met in Lhasa in December 1954. These highways made it possible for materials to be transported into Tibet from China's hinterland. Excited to see all of these changes, the Living Buddha Chazhol, then 75 years old, wrote a poem titled Jade Belt and Golden Bridge in praise of the historic moment.
A highway bridge was built across the Lhasa River to link the Sichuan-Tibet Highway with the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, putting an end to the days when the Tibetans had to rely on cow hide rafts or horse-head boats to cross the river.
When the highway bridge was opened to traffic, the Lhasans sang and danced. One of the songs they sang read: "A golden bridge has been built across the blue Lhasa River; A cross has been written on the mouth of a plump old lady whose name is Xasu.'' Xasu, a noble, was the owner of the Lhasa River Ferry. She is referred to as "a plump old lady'' in the song because she was robust.
In 1956, when the Preparatory Committee for the Founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region was set up, Lhasa saw the opening of Tibet's first modern hospital_the Lhasa People's Hospital, Tibet's first primary school_the Lhasa Primary School, Tibet's first middle school_the Lhasa Middle School, and Tibet's first theater--the Lhasa Auditorium. In 1955, the Todi Gully Hydraulic Power Station located in the northern suburbs of Lhasa was renovated, and efforts for the construction of the Nagqen Hydraulic Power Station in the eastern suburbs began. For over a thousand years, the Lhasans had used butter lamps. With the presence of these two hydraulic power stations, they soon lived in a brightly illuminated environment.

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People's Republic of China (founded in 1949)
The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. Given the historical conditions and the reality in Tibet, the Central People's Government decided to adopt a policy for the peaceful liberation of Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama sent people to New Delhi on January 27, 1951, to ask the ambassador of the Chinese Embassy there to bring his letter to the Central People's Government, which expressed his willingness to hold peace talks with the Central People's Government. On February 28, the 14th Dalai Lama sent a group of Tibetan delegates headed by Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei to Beijing for the purpose. On May 23, 1951, representatives from the Central People's Government and the local government of Tibet signed the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (known as the 17-Article Agreement). The 14th Dalai Lama sent a cable to Chairman Mao Zedong, saying The local government of Tibet and the Tibetan monks and lay people unanimously supportthe agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet, and, under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the Central People's Government, will actively assist the PLA troops as they enter and are garrisoned in Tibet to consolidate the national defense, drive the imperialist forces out of Tibet, and protect the unification of the territory of the motherland.
The 10th Panchen Erdeni also telegraphed Chairman Mao, expressing his acceptance of the 17-Article Agreement and his resolution to uphold the unity of the motherland's sovereignty.
In 1954, the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni came to Beijing to participate in the First Session of the First National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China. During this conference, the 14th Dalai Lama was elected as Vice-Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, and the 10th Panchen Erdeni, member of the NPC Standing Committee.
In 1956, the Preparatory Committee for the Founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region was set up with the 14th Dalai Lama as its chairman.
In March 1959, the majority of the Galoon officials of the local government of Tibet joined hands with the reactionary clique of the upper social strata to launch an armed rebellion with the aim of tearing Tibet away from the motherland and defending the feudal serf system. The Central People's Government ordered the PLA troops in Tibet to resolutely quell the rebellion. On March 28 of the same year, Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council, released an order dissolving the local government of Tibet and declaring that its functions and authority would be vested in the Preparatory Committee for the Founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
At this same time, the Central People's Government, responding to the will of the Tibetan people, implemented the Democratic Reform and abolished the feudal serf system. As a result, a million serfs and slaves in Tibet stood up and came into their own, instead of being treated as the private property of serf-owners that could be traded, transferred or used to pay off a debt in kind or by labor.
The Tibet Autonomous Region was formally founded in September 1965.

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Deng Xiaoping's role in the liberation of Tibet
The Great Southwest included Yunnan and Guizhou provinces and present-day Sichuan and Tibet, with a total area of 2.3 million square kilometres. It was the last territory held by the Kuomintang before they fled from the mainland. To liberate the Southwest, the PLA adopted the tactics of outflanking and encircling the enemy. The Second Field Army, commanded by Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping, and a corps of the First Field Army, led by He Long, advanced from the south and the north respectively and swiftly liberated the entire Southwest except for Tibet, ultimately driving the reactionary Kuomintang forces from the mainland.
Vast in area and poor in communications, the Southwest had a long border line and a large population of many nationalities, so that the liberating armies had to deal with complicated relations among many different peoples. There were hordes of stragglers and disbanded soldiers in the area, because the Kuomintang had deployed over 900,000 troops there. Furthermore, the region swarmed with local bandits and secret agents, and the feudal forces were deep-rooted. The havoc wreaked by the reactionary forces over the long years had resulted in a dilapidated society, a ruined economy and a wretched life for the people. Given the existing conditions, it was a monumental task to build a new life on this vast, complex, newly liberated land.
Deng Xiaoping served as First Secretary of the Southwest Bureau, Vice-Chairman of the Southwest Military and Administrative Commission and Political Commissar of the Southwest Military Command. While leading a campaign to wipe out fleeing bandits and Kuomintang diehards, Deng, along with Liu Bocheng, He Long and others, did everything possible to unite with everyone who could be united with and to win over everyone in the enemy camp who could be won over. With great care and discretion, they tried to break down traditional animosities among different peoples and to bring about national unity. Lastly, by mobilizing the masses, they accomplished agrarian reform and other social reforms and built democratic governments at different levels. Thus they brought about stability in the Southwest.
Under their leadership industrial and agricultural production was quickly restored. One major project they decided to undertake, despite the fact that there were many other tasks clamoring for attention, was the building of the Chengdu-Chongqing Railway. On July 1, 1952, when the railway was officially opened, a dream cherished for decades by the people of Sichuan came true at last.
At this same time Deng Xiaoping and his comrades were also working hard to prepare for the liberation of Tibet. In 1951, when Tibet was peacefully liberated, it was one of their units that planted the five-star red flag on "the roof of the world".
In less than three years since Deng Xiaoping and the others had come to work in the Southwest, fundamental changes had taken place. The entire region had begun to thrive as if spring had returned to the land.

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Monument Erected to Commemorate Tibet Liberation

A grand ceremony was held Wednesday in the Potala Palace in Lhasa to unveil the Tibet Peaceful Liberation Monument.
The monument, named by Chinese President Jiang Zemin, is 37 meters high and built in the shape of Mt Qomolangma.
The inscription on the monument says the People's Liberation Army expelled the imperialist forces from Tibet in 1951, which led Tibet to advancement, prosperity, democracy and opened a new era.Over 2,000 people attended the ceremony.

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Tibet in Chinese history
In 1271, Kublai, a grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered the Central Plain, founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), and made Dadu (today's Beijing) the capital. Kublai wrote finis to the centuries-long situation in which many independent regimes existed side by side, and formed a united country that brought Xinjiang, Tibet and Yunnan under its sway. During the Song-Yuan period, the "four great inventions" in science and technology of the Chinese people in ancient times-papermaking, printing, the compass and unpowder-were further developed, and introduced to foreign countries, making great contributions to world civilization.
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in Nanjing, reigning as Emperor Taizu. When his son and successor Zhu Di (r. 1360-1424) ascended the throne, in 1360, he built and expanded the palaces, temples, city walls and moat in Beijing on a large scale. In 1421, he officially moved the capital to Beijing. During his reign, he dispatched a eunuch named Zheng He to lead a fleet of many ships to make seven far-ranging voyages. Passing the Southeast Asian countries, the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Maldives Islands, Zheng He explored as far as Somalia and Kenya on the eastern coast of Africa. These were the largest-scale and longest voyages in the world before the age of Columbus.
The Manchus of northeast China established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in 1644, under the leadership of Nurhachi. Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) was the most famous emperor of the Qing Dynasty. He brought Taiwan under Qing rule, and resisted invasions by tsarist Russia. To reinforce the administration of Tibet, he also formulated the rules and regulations on the confirmation of the Tibetan local leaders by the Central Government. He effectively administered over 11 million sq km of Chinese territory.

China Tibet Tourism-Introduction-History-4

Evidence of Tibet entering Iron Age from Bronze Age discovered
Archaeologists claim that the iron about 3,000 to 3,400 years old they discovered for the first time in Gachong Village, Doilungdeqen County, southwestern Tibet Autonomous Region, is a symbol of the transition from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age of the ancient Tibetan people.
Located at the Gachong Village in Lhasa City, capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the site, which is 3,632 meters above sealevel, covers an area of nearly 10,000 square meters. Used as an earth field for quite a long time, nearly half of the site was severely damaged.
Archaeologists discovered at the site not only pottery used to smelt iron, iron remnants, animal bones, charcoal, ashes and houserelics, but also pottery fragments and chipped stone implements, said Gengdui, head of the archaeological team.
"It's the first time to discover a cultural relics site of the age both using iron and stone implements in the Tibet region," said Gengdui.
According to Gengdui, design and making techniques of the chipped stone implements and the pottery fragments are quite similar to the discoveries in the 3,700-years-old Qugong site, where a large number of bronze wares were excavated.
"Bronze wares unearthed in the Qugong site prove that about 4,000 years ago, ancient people living in today's Tibet region entered the Bronze Age. The iron discovered in Gachong, although still coarse and not mature, can be considered important evidence of the transition from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age of the local people," said Gengdui.
"So it will be of great significance for research on the beginning time of the Iron Age in the Tibet region," said Gengdui.

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Birthday celebrations of the TAR
The Tibet Autonomous Region was founded in 1965, and celebration of the event took place in history many times.
1965 Founding of the TAR
August 23 The State Council held its 158th session, which discussed the report of the Preparatory Committee for the Founding of the TAR on TAR’s founding. It was agreed during the session that the First People’s Congress of the TAR be held on September 1, 1965, marking the founding of the TAR. The motion was to be submitted to the Standing Committee of the NPC for approval.
The Tibet Revolutionary Exhibition Hall opened to show achievements Tibet had made over the past 15 years. The cement reinforced bar Lhasa River Bridge that connects with the Sichuan-Tibet and the Qinghai-Tibet Highways opened to traffic. Prior to this, a wooden plank bridge was built in 1955.
August 29 The Central Government Delegation headed by Vice-Premier Xie Fuzhi reached Lhasa to the warm welcome of 12,000 people. The Delegation came for the celebration of the TAR.
August 30 The Preparatory Committee for the Founding of the TAR held its last standing committee meeting to discuss work report to be delivered to the First Session of the First TAR People’s Congress. The Preparatory Committee thus completed its historic mission.
September 1 With approval of the Central Committee, the CPC Tibet Work Committee became the CPC TAR Committee. Zhang Jingwu was transferred back to work in the hinterland. Zhang Guohua served as the First Secretary of the CPC TAR Committee, with Tan Guansan, Zhou Renshan, Wang Qimei, Guo Xilan, Miao Peiyi, Ren Mingdao, Yang Dongsheng, Mao Guishu and Hao Pingnan as secretaries of the Secretariat. Various branch work committees became local Party committees.
September 1 The First Session of the First TAR was held in Lhasa. The Central Government Delegation headed by Xie Fuzhi went to offer congratulation to the conference on behalf of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. Yan Xiufeng, Secretary of the CPC Southwest Bureau, spoke at the conference.
September 2 Zhang Guohua, First Secretary of the CPC TAR Committee, delivered a speech at the conference. The speech was titled Holding High the Great Banner of Mao Zedong Thought, Strive for Greater Victory of Socialist Revolution, and Struggle for Buildig Up Socialist New Tibet.
September 3 Zhang Jingwu, Representative of the Central Government in Tibet, spoke at the session. Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei delivered the report on work done by the TAR Preparatory Committee. He said in his report that Tibet enjoyed bumper harvests for six years running after the Democratic Reform. Grain production rose 45.7 percent from 1958 to 1964, and animal husbandry rose 36.3 percent during the period. Tibet had seven middle schools then, with some 700 students, and 86 government run primary schools, and 1,590 primary schools run by the non-governmental sectors with aid from the government, or totally by non-governmental sectors. During the period, Tibet also boasted 15 hospitals and 140 clinics and healthcare centers, offering free medicare to the people.
September 8 The TAR People’s Committee was elected. Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei was elected Chairman of the TAR People’s Committee, and its Vice-Chairmen include Zhou Renshan, Pagblha Geleg Namgyi, Guo Xilan, Xerab Toinzhub (Yang Dongsheng), Namtoin Gonggar Wangqug, Cuike Toinzhub Cering, and Sengqen Lobsang Gyamcain. Lobsang Ceceng became President of the TAR Higher People’s Court.
September 9 In the morning, the congress approved a cable of respect for Chairman Mao, and the Organizational Regulations of the People’s Congresses of the TAR.Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei delivered the closing speech. And the congressed closed.
September 4-11 The Second Tibetan Committee of the CPPCC met in Lhasa and elected Zhang Guohua as its Chairman and Vice-Chairmen including Zhou Renshan, Wang Qimei, Xerab Toinzhub (Yang Dongsheng), Sangpo Cewang Renzin, Fu Tingxiu, Gyangjim Soinam Gyibo, Dege Galsang Wangdui, Bamda Yangbi, Bamda Dorje, Gyaincoling Tubdain Galsang, Gyangbai Chilei, Sangding Dorje Pamo, and Lhamin Yexei Cuchen.
September 9 More than 30,000 people hailing from various quarters of life in Lhasa gathered to celebrate the founding of the TAR. Those speaking at the gathering included Xie Fuzhi (head of the Central Government Delegation), Zhang Guohua (TAR Party Secretary), and Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei (Chairman of the TAR People’s Committee). A parade was held following the gathering.
September 11 Head, deputy head and some members of the Central Government Delegation left Lhasa, and more than 8,000 people went to see them off. The first five branch parts of the Central Government Delegation went to visit Shannan, Heihe, Xigaze, Qamdo and Ngari.
September 14 The TAR People’s Committee held its first meeting which adopted the decision with regard to the organizational structure of work departments under the TAR People’s Committee.
1975 10th Anniversary of the TAR
September 5 The Central Government Delegation led by Vice-Premier Hua Guofeng arrived in Lhasa for the 10th anniversary of the TAR. Ren Rong, Tian Bao and other Tibetan Party and government leaders, and NPC Vice-Chairman Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei greeted the Delegation at the airport. Some 30,000 people in Lhasa welcomed the Delegation in streets.
September 8 The NPC Standing Committee and the State Council cabled the TAR congratulating its 10th birthday. The cable expressed appreciation for the enormous achievement the TAR had made over the past 10 years by saying "The old Tibet featuring darkness, poverty and backwardness has gone for ever, and a socialist new Tibet has emerged standing in the forefront of southwest China."
September 8 The TAR Party Committee held the congress of Party workers and threw a feast to mark the 10th birthday of the TAR. Hua Guofeng spoke at the congress and passed Chairman Mao and the Party Central Commttee’s congration to and care for the Tibetans.
September 9 More than 50,000 people in Lhasa gathered to mark the 10th birthday of the TAR. Hua Guofeng spoke at the gathering which adopted a cable of respect to Chairman Mao and the Party Central Committee.
September 11 The Central Government Delegation led by Hua Guofeng left Lhasa for Beijing. More than 30,000 people saw them off in the street, and leaders of the Party and government organs of Tibet saw them off at the airport.
1985 20th Birthday of the TAR
August 27 The Central Government Delegation arrived in Lhasa for the 20th anniversary of the founding of the TAR. Its head was Hu Qili, Secretary of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, and its deputy heads included the 10th Panchen Erdeni (Vice-Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee), Vice-Premier Li Peng, Wang Zhaoguo (deputy chief of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee), Zhou Keyu (deputy chief of the General Political Department of the PLA), Ying Fatang (Vice Political Commissar of the No.2 Artillery Department of the PLA), Zhao Weicheng (Vice-Minister of the State Economic Commission), Puncog Wangjie (deputy head of the Civil Administration Department of the NPC), and Jiang Ping (deputy head of the CPC United Work Department). More than 20,000 people in Lhasa welcomed them in the street.
August 30 An evening part was held to welcome the Central Government Delegation. TAR Vice-Party Secretary Radi delivered a welcome speech and the Central Government Delegation representative Ying Fatang also spoke at the party.
August 31 The TAR held its conference of government workers to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Tar. Hu Qili, Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Secretariat and head of the Central Government Delegation, spoke at the conference. Also speaking at the conference were those Deputy head of the Central Government Delegation Li Peng who spoke on economic development and education, announcing the State Council approval of construction of the Yamzhog Yumco Hydraulic Power Station; the 10th Panchen Erden, Vice-Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, who spoke on the need for the united front work and religion; and Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei, also Vice-Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee and Chairman of the TAR People’s Congress Standing Committee, who spoke on achievements Tibet had made over the past 20 years.
September 1 More than 30,000 in Lhasa gathered to mark the 20th birthday of the TAR. Hu Qili read out the cable of congratulation from the CPC Central Committee.
September 3 The Central Government Delegation left for Beijing by air. More than 3,000 people in Lhasa saw the Delegation off at the airport. During its stay, the Central Government Delegation visited villages, factories, schools, scientific research institutes, PLA troops stationed in Tibet, and monasteries. Its members also joined the locals in party gathering.
1995 30th Birthday of the TAR
August 29 The Central Government Delegation headed by Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo reached Lhasa for the TAR’s 30th birthday. They received a rousing welcome from the local leaders and people.
August 31 The Tar Party Committee and government held a conference to mark the TAR’s 30th birthday. The Central Government Delegation head Wu Bangguo delivered an important speech. TAR Party Committee Secretary Chen Kuiyuan delivered a speech titled Struggle for the Great Revitalization of Tibet. Wu Bangguo, Pagblha Geleg Namgyi, Wang Zaoguo, Qian Zhengying, Zhang Wannian and Chen Kuiyuan cut ribbons for the completion of construction of the Potala Palace Square.
September 1 Some 40,000 people gathered in the Potala Palace Square to mark the 30th TAR’s birthday. The CPC Central Committee, the NPC Standing Committee, the State Council, the CPPCC National Committee and the Central Military Commission sent cables of congratulation. The Central Government Delegation head Wu Bangguo spoke on behalf of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council and presented the TAR government with written congratulation bearing words by Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and State President.
September 2 The Lhasa people met in the Norbu Lingka for celebrations. The Central Government Delegation head Wu Bangguo presented the Jokhang Monastery and some other major monasteries with written congratulations and issued alms to lamas. The written congratulation bearing words by President Jiang Zemin "Love the country, love religion, unite and make progress." Wu Bangguo delivered a speech, wishing the religious circle to put what President Jiang says into practice. The Central Government Delegation also visited the TAR Archives where Wu wrote "Treasure of the Chinese Nation, and Historical Evidence."